Here is the Second World War that lasted from 1939 to 1945.
peace of paris The treaties drawn up in Paris at the end of the First World War satisfied them little. Germany, Austria and the rest of the countries that were on the losing side of the war were particularly unhappy with the Paris Agreement, as they had to lay down their arms and make reparations. Germany agreed to sign the Treaty of Versailles after the victorious countries threatened to invade if Germany did not sign. Germany made its last reparations payment in 2010.
Economic issues – The First World War was devastating for the countries’ economies. Although the European economy stabilized by the 1920s, the Great Depression in the United States led to an economic decline in Europe. Communism and fascism gained strength due to economic problems.
Nationalism – A type of extreme patriotism that grew in Europe became even stronger after the World War, especially for the defeated countries.
Dictatorships – Political unrest and unfavorable economic conditions lead to the rise of dictatorships in countries such as Germany, Italy, Japan, and the Soviet Union.
Failing to appease – Czechoslovakia became an independent nation after World War I, but by 1938 it was surrounded by German territory. Hitler wanted to annex the Sudetenland, the western area of Czechoslovakia where many Germans lived. British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain sought to appease Hitler and agreed to his demands for the Sudetenland after Hitler promised not to ask for more territory. Hitler took over the rest of Czechoslovakia in March 1939.
Germany, Japan and Italy formed a coalition called the Axis Powers. Bulgaria, Hungary, Romania and two states created by the Germans – Croatia and Slovakia – eventually joined.
Germany – Adolf Hitler, Fuehrer
Japan – Admiral Hideki Tojo, Prime Minister
Italy – Benito Mussolini, Prime Minister
The United States, Great Britain, China, and the Soviet Union formed the Allies, a group fighting against the Axis. Between 1939 and 1944 at least 50 nations would eventually fight together. By 1945, thirteen more nations would join, including: Australia, Belgium, Brazil, the Commonwealth of Great Britain, Canada, India, New Zealand, South Africa, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, France, Greece, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, the Philippines, and Yugoslavia.
United States of America – Franklin D. Roosevelt, President
great britain – Winston Churchill, Prime Minister
china – Chiang Kai-shek, General
Soviet Union – Joseph Stalin, general
16,112,566 – Number of US troops who served in the conflict.
670,846 – Number of injured in the US.
Theater total: 405,399
Australia: 23,365 dead; 39,803 injured
Austria: 380,000 dead; 350,117 injured
Belgium: 7,760 dead; 14,500 injured
Bulgaria: 10,000 dead; 21,878 injured
Canada: 37,476 dead; 53,174 injured
China: 2,200,000 dead; 1,762,000 injured
France: 210,671 dead; 390,000 injured
Germany: 3,500,000 dead; 7,250,000 injured
Great Britain: 329,208 dead; 348,403 injured
Hungary: 140,000 dead; 89,313 injured
Italy: 77,494 dead; 120,000 injured
Japan: 1,219,000 dead; 295,247 injured
Poland: 320,000 dead; 530,000 injured
Romania: 300,000 dead; injured unknown
Soviet Union: 7,500,000 dead; 5,000,000 injured
United States of America: 405,399 dead; 670,846 injured
About 70 million people fought in the armed forces of the Allied and Axis nations.
Finland did not officially join either the Allies or the Axis and was at war with the Soviet Union when World War II began. In need of help in 1940, the Finns joined forces with Nazi Germany to repel the Soviets. When peace was declared between Finland and the Soviet Union in 1944, Finland joined the Soviets in expelling the Germans.
Switzerland, Spain, Portugal and Sweden declared neutrality during the war.
The Soviet Union lost the most soldiers, more than seven million.
The number of civilians killed in World War II will never be known. Many deaths were caused by bombings, massacres, starvation and other war-related causes.
Six million Jews died in Nazi concentration camps during the war. Also, hundreds of thousands of Gypsies and people with mental or physical disabilities died.
The Lend-Lease Act was created to allow the United States to lend or lend weapons, equipment, or raw materials to any nation fighting the Axis. In the end, 38 nations received about $50 billion in aid. Most went to Great Britain and the Soviet Union.
In 1948, the United States created the Marshall Plan to help rebuild war-torn Europe. In the end, 18 nations received $13 trillion in food, machinery and other goods.
In March 1974, Hiroo Onoda, a Japanese soldier still fighting in the war, was found by a search party on Lubang Island in the Philippines. Convinced by his former commander that the war is over, he flies him to Manila and formally surrenders to President Ferdinand Marcos. Onoda died on January 16, 2014, at the age of 91.
September 1, 1939 – Germany invades Poland. Denmark, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, Belgium and France are soon under German control.
June 10, 1940 – Italy joins the war on Germany’s side by declaring war on Great Britain and France. The fighting spreads to Greece and North Africa.
June 14, 1940 – German troops have entered Paris.
July 1940-September 1940 – Germany and Great Britain wage an aerial war, the Battle of Britain, over the coast of England.
September 7, 1940-May 1941 – The German bombing campaign at night over London, known as the Blitz.
June 22, 1941 – Germany invades the Soviet Union.
December 7, 1941 – Japan attacks the US Navy base at Pearl Harbor in Hawaii, destroying more than half of the aircraft fleet and damaging all eight battleships. Japan also attacks Clark and Iba airfields in the Philippines, destroying more than half of the US military’s aircraft there.
December 8, 1941 – The US declares war on Japan. Japan invades Hong Kong, Guam, Wake Islands, Singapore and British Malaya.
December 11, 1941 – Germany and Italy declare war on the United States.
1942 – The Allies stop the advance of the Axis Powers in North Africa and the Soviet Union.
February 1942 – Japan invades the Malay Peninsula. Singapore surrenders within a week.
June 4-6, 1942 – Japan plans to invade the Hawaiian Islands, starting on Midway Island, but the United States breaks the mission code. Japan attacks Midway and loses four aircraft carriers and over 200 aircraft and pilots in the first clear victory for the United States.
August 19, 1942 – The Battle of Stalingrad begins as Germany pushes into Russia.
August 1942-February 1943 – US Marines support and hold Guadalcanal Island in the Pacific.
October 23, 1942 – British troops push Axis troops back into Tunisia during the Second Battle of El Alamein.
February 1, 1943 – German troops at Stalingrad surrender, largely defeated by the Soviet winter. The defeat halted Germany’s eastward advance.
July 10, 1943 – Allied forces land in Italy.
July 25, 1943 – The King of Italy regains full power and Mussolini is removed and arrested.
November 1943-March 1944 – US Marines invade the Solomon Islands in Bougainville to retake it from the Japanese.
June 6, 1944 – D-Day, the landing of Allied forces on five Normandy beaches: Utah, Omaha, Gold, Juno, and Sword. The landing involved more than 5,000 ships, 11,000 aircraft and 150,000 service men.
August 25, 1944 – American and French forces liberate Paris.
[January271945-[1945ekourtarrilaren27a-Soviet troops liberated the Auschwitz concentration camp, near Krakow, Poland.
[FromFebruary19toMarch261945[1945ekootsailaren19tikmartxoaren26ra – US Marines battle the Japanese for the island of Iwo Jima.
[April121945-[1945ekoapirilaren12a-Roosevelt dies in Warm Springs, Georgia. Vice President Harry Truman is sworn in as president.
[April251945[1945ekoapirilaren25a – Soviet troops surround Berlin.
[April281945[1945ekoapirilaren28a – Mussolini is killed trying to escape to Switzerland.
[April291945-[1945ekoapirilaren29a- US soldiers liberated the Dachau concentration camp outside of Munich, Germany.
[April301945[1945ekoapirilaren30a – Hitler and his wife Eva Braun commit suicide.
[May71945-[1945ekomaiatzaren7a- Germany surrenders in a red school in Eisenhower’s residence in Reims, Germany. Victory in Europe (VE) Day is celebrated on May 8, the day the armistice came into effect.
[May81945-[1945ekomaiatzaren8a- VE Day The war in Europe is officially over.
[July161945[1945ekouztailaren16a – First successful atomic bomb test at Alamogordo, New Mexico.
[July291945-[1945ekouztailaren29a- Truman warns Japan that the country will be destroyed if it does not surrender unconditionally. Japan continues to struggle.
[August61945[1945ekoabuztuaren6a– The first atomic bomb used in war, nicknamed Little Boy, was dropped on the Japanese city of Hiroshima, killing 140,000 people.
[August91945[1945ekoabuztuaren9a – After no response from the Japanese government after the bombing of Hiroshima, a second atomic bomb, nicknamed Fat Man, is dropped on Nagasaki, killing 80,000 people.
[August141945-[1945ekoabuztuaren14a-Japan unconditionally agrees to accept the terms of the Potsdam Declaration and end the war. Victory over Japan (VJ) Day has been declared.
[September21945-[1945ekoirailaren2a- Japan signs formal surrender aboard the USS Missouri in Tokyo Bay.